The Beacon: Jon Warrenchuk's blog

Sharks in Alaska? You Bet.

salmon shark

My shelves are lined with identification guides and keys to the various critters that live in our ocean realm. I like to collect identification guides because collectively they handily serve as an encyclopedia of ocean biodiversity. I’m excited to add the newly published Field Guide to Sharks, Skates, and Ratfish of Alaska to my collection.


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Jon's Journal: Day 21

August 19, 2004: After a rockin' and rollin' night on the ship, the morning news is a surprise to nobody. Today's dive is cancelled. Winds are over 30 knots and the seas are rife with 10-plus foot waves, beyond the safety margins to safely launch and recover the ALVIN. Sadly, the "Caldera of Doom" on Ely Seamount will remain unexplored.

This was the last scheduled dive of the cruise, so after some final multi-beam mapping of the area, we'll begin the long 4 day transit south.

The underwater exploration part of the cruise has effectively come to an end. But the information collected will yield many more discoveries. I'm very appreciative of being involved in this exciting research. Being able to observe deep-sea corals in their natural habitat has been a wonderful opportunity, so much more meaningful than numbers on a spreadsheet or dots on a map.

I'd like to thank Catalina Martinez, NOAA Office of Exploration, chief scientist Tom Shirley and principle investigators Randy Keller, Amy Baco-Taylor and Peter Etnoyer, the crew of Alvin and the Atlantis, and everyone else involved in the 2004 Gulf of Alaska Seamount Exploration. All your efforts have brought mankind closer to understanding the mysteries of the sea.

For the oceans,

Jon Warrenchuk

Marine Biologist

Oceana


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Jon's Journal: Day 20

August 18, 2004:
The previous evening's multi-beam mapping revealed an interesting structure on the adjacent Ely Seamount: a volcanic crater on the summit. The P.I.'s decide to dedicate the last dive of the cruise tomorrow to exploring this structure.

There's bound to be something of interest for both the geologists and the biologists on this unique seamount feature. The crater is sensationally dubbed "the Caldera of Doom". Why? Probably because we watched Indiana Jones on DVD the night before.


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Jon's Journal: Day 19

August 17, 2004:The Atlantis is holding its position 800 meters over the summit of Giacomini Seamount, the last seamount we'll be exploring on this expedition.

Tom Shirley and Peter Etnoyer are cruising the flank of the seamount in Alvin while collecting samples for their research. Towards the end of every dive, the scientists in the sub call in the science report to the bridge. That way, those of us on the ship can get ready to process the collected samples when they return to the surface. The science report is reported around the ship: 7 corals, 3 seastars, 5 rocks, 4 "slurp" samples, 1 fish.

Fish? Hmmm. We haven't had a fish yet in our samples. I'm curious as to what it could be. A roughscale grenadier? A bignose skate? Shortspine thornyhead?

When the sub is retrieved and the samples are on deck, we find out. It's a snailfish! Whoa, stand back, those babies can take your leg off! Just kidding. It's only about 3.5 inches long, a real cutie.

The snailfishes are a diverse group of fish in the North Pacific (there's probably several dozen species). Snailfish have a pelvic fin that's modified into an adhesive disk used to stick onto things. This particular little dude was hanging out on a bamboo coral. All very interesting. Now into the alcohol jar with you!


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Jon's Journal: Day 18

August 16, 2004: The video we collected on our dive to Pratt seamount allows for an unlimited number of opportunities to revisit the seafloor. Each dive has generated a treasure trove of digital video data. A hard-working team of undergraduate and graduate students, NOAA scientists, and research assistants has diligently reviewed each minute of footage collected during the entire cruise and annotated the highlights. "Dive 4036, time 16:11:43, closeup of bubblegum coral with polyps extended". "Dive 4029, time 13:45:07, seastar apparently feeding on bamboo coral". "Dive 4031, time 14:20:27, spider crabs and squat lobsters swarming on carcass (fish?)". There are hundreds of entries like this. You can check out some of the best on the NOAA Ocean Explorer Web site.


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Jon's Journal: Day 17 (Part 2)

August 15, 2004 (continued): Grenadiers (or rattails) are the most common fish at this depth. One swims directly up to my porthole to check us out. They have huge eyes and a long, undulating serpent-like tail; they're halfway between cute and freaky. Thousands of tons of these fish are killed and discarded each year in Alaska as fishery bycatch. The fish are cool, but I'm keeping my eyes open for deep-sea corals.

The seafloor community at this dive site is diverse. The biomass isn't as great as some of the other sites we've visited, but there's a wide array of critters. Filter-feeding armored sea cucumbers are abundant, as are crinoids and sponges. But the most striking feature are the deep-sea corals. We find bamboo, Primnoids, Anthomastus, black and bubblegum corals, sometimes all growing on the same rock!

Atop a rock wall, a beautiful sight emerges. Growing atop a large boulder are several beautiful bubblegum coral colonies, bright pink and over a meter across. Galatheid crabs, shrimp, anemones, and brittlestars are festooned amongst the coral branches. It's beautiful, it looks like Spongebob's Christmas tree. It's also a perfect sample for Tom Shirley's coral habitat research, so Bruce breaks out the "slurp" vacuum and begins sucking the organisms off the branches. We also "slurp" several other species of coral, each with its own unique biota, and snip representative coral branches.

The sub batteries are used up, so Bruce drops the weights and we begin our trip to the surface. We've spent 6 unique hours exploring the flank of Pratt Seamount. The dive is definitely a success. We collected several organisms that had yet not been sampled during the cruise: a pink nudibranch, two predatory seastars, and a species of Galatheid crab. I'm sure much more will be revealed when we process the samples aboard the Atlantis. I'm very appreciative of Tom Shirley, who donated this precious seat which has allowed me to become one of the select few "Aquanauts" who have explored the ocean floor. Y'arr!


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Jon's Journal: Day 17 (Part 1)

August 15, 2004: We're sinking! But don't worry, I'm in Woods Holes' famous Alvin submarine, and sinking is exactly what it's designed to do.

We're descending 3/4 of a mile beneath the sea to a rocky slope on Pratt Seamount in the Gulf of Alaska. Our pilot is Bruce Strickrott, an experienced sub pilot with over 150 dives under his belt. Crammed into the starboard is Peter Etnoyer of Aquanautix, and yours truly, Jon Warrenchuk of Oceana is on the port side.

The trip to the bottom will take about 45 minutes, so there's time to listen to music and wonder at the bioluminescent plankton. Unfortunately, we didn't bring Pink Floyd's Dark Side of the Moon, which would have been absolutely perfect for the occasion. My sub-mates try to put on Rush, which I quickly kibosh, and we settle on some ambient house music.

I stare out the porthole, hoping for a glimpse of a sperm whale or giant squid or something equally rare and undocumented. I don't see any, but nonetheless, the bioluminescent jellyfish, salps, and marine snow drifting past the porthole are interesting to watch.

When the seafloor looms into sight, it's very surreal. Here we are, on the bottom of the ocean, millions of tons of water pressing down above us, and I'm wearing my favorite bedroom slippers. Bruce takes a moment to make a few calibrations and then we're off, cruising upslope in a search for deep-sea corals for the biologists and pillow basalts for the geologists.


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Jon's Journal: Day 16


[editor's note, by Jason] Jon Warrenchuk is currently participating in NOAA's 2004 Gulf of Alaska Seamount Expedition.


August 14, 2004: Tomorrow will be my first dive in the Alvin, so it's time for an equipment and safety briefing. I'm getting very excited. This is the same Alvin that photographed the Titanic, the same Alvin that discovered the explosion of life around hydrothermal vents, the same Alvin that's made immeasurable contributions to our knowledge of the deep-sea. And now I get to make a voyage in that same Alvin to the bottom of the Gulf of Alaska.

Safety is important when you are descending into the depths of the ocean in areas never explored by man. Three miles of ocean water pressing down can crush just about anything other than a 2-inch thick titanium sphere. Good thing Alvin happens to be built around a 2-inch thick titanium sphere. Alvin has made thousands of dives with nary a hitch, but we learn what to do if the pilot becomes incapacitated (drop the weights and shoot to the surface). We'll only be staying at the bottom of the ocean for a few hours, but there's enough air and life support for 3 people for 3 days.

The first thing you notice when you get inside the Alvin submarine is how much larger it seemed from the outside. Inside, it's definitely close quarters. If one person moves, everybody knows it. The pilot sits hunched on a box, surrounded by switches, lights, buttons, control levers, and computer screens. The two observers lie in kind of a prone position on either side with a small 12 inch porthole to peer through. The observers also control 2 pan and tilt video cameras mounted on the outside of the sub. These will come in handy tomorrow while we document life on the rocky slope of Pratt Seamount, 3/4 of a mile beneath the sea.


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Jon's Journal: Day 15


[editor's note, by Jason] Jon Warrenchuk is currently participating in NOAA's 2004 Gulf of Alaska Seamount Expedition.


August 13, 2004: Man... the combination of high definition underwater cameras and a submersible with dexterous mechanical arms is unbeatable. With this set-up, we're able to observe and record deep-sea corals alive in their natural habitat, then collect those exact same individual corals for physiological measurements. Research on deep-sea corals in years past had relied on opportunistic samples that arrived in a mixed haul from a deep-water trawl, or tangled in some other sampling equipment.

The corals were generally battered and broken, fleshy parts all sloughed off or crushed beyond recognition. And there was no context in which to interpret the samples, no visual picture of the relationships. Imagine aliens trying to interpret human society by scraping a giant net along the earth, scooping up a cow, a broken street lamp, a Starbucks, a nerf football, and a 1976 Plymouth Volare?

Being able to observe deep-sea corals in a natural setting has greatly expanded our knowledge of these organisms in just the last two weeks. Peter Etnoyer has discovered hitherto unknown "sweeper tentacles" on bamboo corals. Tom Shirley has found a suite of species living amongst the corals, observed some species that prefer certain corals over others, and some that even prey on corals. Amy Baco-Taylor has catalogued at least 30 to 40 different kinds of corals, some of which are sure to be new species.

I receive exciting news at the end of the day: I get to be an official Aquanaut on Sunday! Tom Shirley is giving me a precious seat on the Alvin to explore the slope of Pratt Seamount, 1200 meters below the surface. Rock on!!! (air guitar)


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Jon's Journal: Day 14


[editor's note, by Jason] Jon Warrenchuk is currently participating in NOAA's 2004 Gulf of Alaska Seamount Expedition.


August 12, 2004: Y'arr! It's been thirteen days without sight of land. In fact, we're so far offshore that we're nearing the edge of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the United States. The EEZ is the boundary that contains the sovereign ocean waters of the United States and extends 200 miles seaward from the U.S. shoreline. The next seamount to explore, Pratt seamount, lies just outside the EEZ in international waters (y'arr, it's in the high seas me'boy). The high seas are truly the last frontier on Earth. But since no individual country holds sway over this resource, it's relatively unprotected and unregulated.

There is a United Nations convention, the "Law of the Sea", and while we observe it as a matter of course, the U.S. does not endorse it. The "Law of the Sea" does address some extractive activities like deep-sea mining, but not others like high seas fishing. In some parts of the ocean, high seas bottom trawling is a real problem.

My organization, Oceana, supports a moratorium on high seas bottom trawling until there are agreements in place to protect special areas like seamounts. Seems reasonable, doesn't it?

So what happens once we cross into the lawless international waters outside the EEZ? Were there pirates, offshore gambling casinos, international intrigue, and debauchery? The answer is... no. Understandably, it's anticlimactic.


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