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As ocean acidification worsens and coral reefs and fisheries begin to collapse, many nations will suffer increased economic and food security threats. Nations with large coral reef areas, or that catch and consume large amounts of fish and shellfish, and those located at higher latitudes are likely to be most vulnerable to ocean acidification.

This analysis evaluated the likely vulnerability of different countries to continued ocean acidification based on the magnitude of their fish and shellfish catch, their level of seafood consumption, the percentage of coral reefs within their exclusive economic zones (EEZ) and the projected level of ocean acidification in their coastal waters in 2050.

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