Marine wildlife is estimated to consume between 150 and 300 million metric tons of krill each year. So it’s pretty safe to say that it’s a good thing a ban on fishing for krill in US Pacific waters became federal regulation on Monday. The move ends a years-long advocacy campaign led by Oceana and supported by scientists, conservationists, and fishermen. The federal regulations mirror those of state limits out to three miles offshore in Washington, Oregon and California. Krill, a catch-all term for 85 species of small shrimp-like creatures, forms the foundation of many marine food webs. Animals such as salmon, whales, and sea lions all heavily rely on krill for survival. The ban also shows a new way of managing fisheries that prioritizes the health of marine ecosystems, and not just one species. Oceana is a strong supporter of ecosystem-based management. Congrats to all who were involved in making this happen!
Pinky isn’t the only albino marine mammal to make the news. Migaloo, an all white humpback whale whose Aboriginal name means white man, has recently been sighted off the eastern Australian coast. First spotted in 1991, Migaloo, like other humpback whales, migrates each year to warm tropical waters in the winter to breed and back to Antarctic feeding waters in the spring. Southern Cross University whale researcher Wally Franklin credits an increase in whale watchers to Migaloo because "he is an amazing sight and easy to track… he has become the ambassador of his kind.'' As an ambassador, Queensland has declared him a special interest whale, with hefty fines levied on those who venture too close, whether by sea or air. All whales are protected by restrictions and fines for the sake of the animals and humans alike; full grown humpback whales can weigh more than a tractor trailer. With his special status, Migaloo is given a wider berth than his typically pigmented friends on his yearly track.
Do me a favor and try this: stay where you are and click your tongue against the roof of your mouth. Now walk somewhere else, and click your tongue again. Can you hear a difference? Congratulations, you’re on your way to learning how to echolocate! Whales and dolphins use echolocation to navigate and locate objects in the dark ocean. According to acoustic experts in Spain, people can use tongue clicks to “see” things by listening to the way the noise reverberates off its surroundings. All you have to do is recognize changes in your tongue clicks based on what is around you. Apparently, two hours per day for a couple of weeks is enough to determine if something is in front of you, and it takes a couple more weeks to differentiate between a tree and pavement. The most ideal sound is the “palate click” where you place the tip of your tongue on the roof of your mouth just behind your teeth and quickly move your tongue backwards.
When talking about whales and culture, I typically think of the role these marine mammals play in island societies, a la Whale Rider and the Maori of New Zealand. But recent research on whales and dolphins show that whales can be the same species, genetically similar, and even occupy the same habitat yet individual pods behave and interact with each other very differently. It is almost as if within species of whales there are different cultures. While it has been known for decades that whales have different vocalization patterns, the type of generational research performed in labs on smaller animals like primates and birds is just starting to happen for these larger marine animals and indications of “personhood” behaviors are beginning to emerge. Scientists have shown that certain primates are self aware, have feelings, and high-level cognitive powers and according to new research, whales and dolphins do too.
When I usually read about theft and the sea, I think of overfishing and depleted natural resources. But this time around, it is a hungry predator taking advantage. Check out this video on National Geographic Kids and get ready for a surprise around the 35 second mark. One particularly smart sperm whale has learned how to shake fish free of lines without injury. Perhaps if he had enough food in the open sea, he wouldn’t have to resort to such tactics.
If you are looking for a good summer beach read, Eye of the Whale may be just the ticket. Billed as an ecological thriller, Douglas Carlton Abrams manages to successfully weave science into engaging storylines, providing a rich fictional entree into many of the issues Oceana works on. Abrams succeeds in giving threats such as ocean pollution, destructive fishing techniques, and the effects of climate change human (and cetacean) faces and with any luck, inspires his readers to action fueled by hope.
Ever wonder how you measure up (literally) compared to a blue whale? It is easy to throw around things like “largest mammal” and “gentle giant of the deep” but it can be hard to imagine just how large these animals are. Visit the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society website for a chance to see just how mammoth these creatures are. A life size image of a blue whale scrolls across your screen. The first image that loads is of an eye the size of your palm. I kid you not -- I gasped out loud. Encountering animals in their natural habitats is far more awe-inspiring than flash versions on my computer screen, but I’ll take the virtual version for now.
Good news for this whale Wednesday: According to new research presented, interestingly, at the Acoustical Society of America, the distinctive calls of North Atlantic right whales have been detected in a former whaling ground off the southeastern tip of Greenland. Right whales in the area were presumed extinct due to hunting in the late 19th century, and in the past 50 years, only two whales have been spotted in the area. Curious what the right whale sounds like? Listen to the "upcall," "gunshot" and "scream" the scientists might have heard.
Welcome to Whale Wednesday, the first ever hump(back) day feature devoted to cetaceans. I'm taking a cue from Oceans4Ever, the masters of alliterative weekly features, like Make a Difference Monday and Freaky Fish Friday. Hopefully this will become a semi-regular feature -- what's not to love about whales, after all? Today, three scintillating stories about cetaceans: 1. The Seattle Times reports on the first scientific review of the effort to reintegrate Keiko, the "Free Willy" orca, into the wild. The paper, which appears in the journal Marine Mammal Science, shows that while Keiko wasn't accepted by other orcas and had to be fed frozen fish until he died in 2003, he lived a longer life span than any other captive male orca. Turns out Willy's freedom was only possible on screen -- having been captured at the age of 2, he had been held in captivity too long to make it on his own.
During recess in grade school, I used to tie a sweater around my waist for a tail, use my pointer finger as a horn, and gallop around the playground, neighing and tossing about my mane. Yes, I was THAT girl who pretended she was a unicorn. I’ve since changed and fulfilled my interest in fantasy creatures by reading science fiction books and watching movies, but I don’t have to travel to the land of make-believe to learn about mysterious animals with impressive tusks. I just have to travel to the ice clogged inlets of Arctic Greenland, via this month's issue of Smithsonian Magazine. Little is known about these “unicorns of the sea”- biologist and narwhal specialist Kristin Laidre speculates that “we probably know a lot more about the brains of grasshoppers than we do about narwhals." Check out the fascinating article for a history of the narwhal, how Laidre (sometimes) successfully tags narwhals, and why any of this is important.