Harp Seal - Oceana

Marine Mammals

Harp Seal

Pagophilus Groenlandicus


Sub-polar to polar latitudes of the north Atlantic and Arctic oceans


Reproduce on the ice surface; feed at the ice edge

Feeding Habits

Foraging predator


Order Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, and relatives), Family Phocidae (true seals)


Harp seals are foraging predators that eat several dozen species of bony fishes and invertebrates. They will eat just about anything they can catch. Juveniles eat krill and other pelagic crustaceans, and the diet diversifies as they grow. Adult harp seals are eaten by killer whales and large sharks. Juveniles are eaten by polar bears and other terrestrial predators, including foxes and wolves.

Courtship among harp seals takes place on the ice surface, but mating typically occurs in the water. Both males and females may mate with several partners during the mating season. Like all mammals, harp seals reproduce via internal fertilization and give birth to live young. Pups are born on the ice surface and are nursed by their mothers for only 12 days. After the nursing period, the pup is still quite helpless and unable to hunt for several weeks. During that time, it derives energy from its fat reserves, may lose up to 50% of its body weight, and is particularly vulnerable to predators.

Fun Facts About Harp Seals

1. Harp seals grow up to 6 feet (1.8 m) long and weigh up to 300 pounds (136 kg).

2. Harp seals can live for an estimated 30 years.

3. Harp seal pups are born with long white fur that helps them absorb sunlight and stay warm while they’re still developing blubber. Pups shed their white fur after about three to four weeks old.

4. Harp seals are highly migratory and can travel more than 3,100 miles (4,989 km) roundtrip to feed.

5. Harp seals can stay underwater for at least 16 minutes at a time.

6. Harp seals Harp seals are named for the curved, black patch on their backs, which resembles a harp.1

7. Harp seals have a diverse diet, eating at least 67 species of fish and 70 species of invertebrates.

8. Harp seals prefer shallow water but can dive as deep as 1,312 feet (400 m).

9. Harp seals are the most abundant species of pinniped (seals, sea lions and walruses) in the northern hemisphere.2

Engage Youth with Sailors for the Sea

Oceana joined forces with Sailors for the Sea, an ocean conservation organization dedicated to educating and engaging the world’s boating community. Sailors for the Sea developed the KELP (Kids Environmental Lesson Plans) program to create the next generation of ocean stewards. Click here or below to download hands-on marine science activities for kids.

Kids Environmental Lesson Plans


1 NOAA Fisheries

2 IUCN Red List